Vanadiferous titanomagnetite concentrate "VTM, Magnetite" is the most important source for vanadium presently accounting about 85% of the current world V2O5 production. Vanadiumcorp's recently announced a positive independent Preliminary Economic Assessment (‘PEA’) on the 100% owned Lac Dore Vanadium Project with a Pre-tax NPV of CDN $1.057 Billion and Pre-tax IRR of 17.46%. The Lac Dore Vanadium Project is established as one of the very few economic VTM resources worldwide.  Download PDF Archive Version here...  Production grade magnetite concentrate typically contains 1.0% to 1.5% V2O5. VTM is mined in Brazil, South Africa and China and processed for vanadium extraction.  VTM is also processed in steelmaking operations in China, Russia and South Africa.  

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      Feedstock and Product Flowsheet - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Process Technology

Feedstock and Products Flowsheet VanadiumCorp Electrochem Process Technology

Trial Production Pictures

Trial Production Pictures VanadiumCorp Electrochem Process Technology

VanadiumCorp also announced in Q1, 2017, the joint application with Electrochem Technologies & Materials Inc. "Electrochem" for a US provisional patent application (US 62/463,411) for a combined metallurgical and chemical process for vanadiferous titanomagnetite concentrate "VTM". This VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Process Technology represents a breakthrough method of direct recovery for vanadium electrolyte (VE), vanadium oxides, electrolytic iron, TiO2 byproduct and silica from VTM and other feedstocks using electricity rather than heat that reduces energy costs and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. Successful test work at phase II level is currently approaching 1 tonne/month nameplate feedstock capacity and managed by Dr. Francois Cardarelli at Electrochem's facilities in Boucherville, Quebec. The new green technology continues to demonstrate high recoveries of value add products in trial production from global feedstocks and a VTM concentrate extracted, prepared and beneficiated by IOS Services Geoscientifiques Inc., directly from the Company's 100% owned Lac Dore Vanadium Project in Chibougamau, Quebec. Several announcements are pending with phase II trial production underway now. 

 New Technology for Recovering Iron and Vanadiumfrom Vanadiferous Titanomagnetite
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February 28, 2017, VanadiumCorp Resource Inc. (TSX-V: "VRB") is pleased to announce that it has applied jointly with Electrochem Technologies & Materials Inc. "Electrochem" for a US provisional patent application (US 62/463,411) for a combined metallurgical and chemical process. Successful test work commenced by Dr. Francois Cardarelli at Electrochem's facilities in Boucherville, Quebec yielded high recoveries of both iron and vanadium values from a vanadiferous titanomagnetite concentrate that was extracted, prepared and beneficiated by IOS Services Geoscientifiques Inc., directly from the Company's 100% owned Lac Dore Vanadium Project in Chibougamau, Quebec.

Conventional pyrometallurgical processes utilize either direct soda ash roasting of the magnetite followed by water leaching, or the arc smelting and slagging of the magnetite followed by soda ash roasting of the vanadium-rich slag. Smelting or roasting is capital intensive with high operating costs, technical risks and significant emissions of greenhouse gases that pose serious environmental issues. Hydrometallurgical processes for the extraction of vanadium have been proposed in the last decade as a lower cost alternative in replacement of the conventional processes but they fail to produce a high quality iron co-product.

The Vanadiumcorp-Electrochem Technology addresses these key issues and allows the full recovery of vanadium for the production of either a vanadium electrolyte (VE) or vanadium chemicals used for preparing vanadium battery electrolyte as well as the concurrent production of a high quality and competitive iron co-product.

Adriaan Bakker, CEO of Vanadiumcorp states, "Direct co-recovery of high quality and competitive iron product adds significant value to our resources and production potential. Our entire "mine to technology" transformation plan is now environmentally friendly in addition to our battery electrolyte lasting forever in 100% green energy storage technology. Vanadiumcorp is committed to the development of a low cost vanadium electrolyte alternative to facilitate mass deployment of vanadium redox flow batteries."

Highlights

  • Joint US provisional patent application filed to protect a novel technology developed jointly by VanadiumCorp Resource Inc. and Electrochem Technologies & Materials Inc.
  • Clean alternative to roasting and smelting, with negligible greenhouse gases emissions and minimizing the amount of wastes
  • Maximum recovery and transformation: Combination of metallurgical and chemical processes suitable for recovering iron and vanadium for preparing a vanadium electrolyte (VE) directly from vanadiferous titanomagnetites.
  • Successful trials conducted with a vanadiferous titanomagnetite concentrate from the Vanadiumcorp Lac Dore Vanadium Project.
  • Demonstration of potential industrial applicability of Vanadiumcorp-Electrochem Technology from successful test work initiated in 2016 and that continues during 2017 with other vanadium sources.
  • Direct, high efficiency VE and Iron process technology
  • Advantage of coproduct recovery over conventional iron and vanadium production methods
  • Scalable production with modular design
  • Low cost production target for 100% reusable battery material
  • Location agnostic: Creates opportunity for process technology centers next to primary vanadium resources and secondary vanadium feedstocks such as spent catalysts, slags and fly ash
  • 100% green vertically integrated supply stream "mine to technology"
Complete, vertically integrated climate change solution

  • Primary Supply: Exclusive NI 43-101 low impurity vanadium resource in magnetite (66% Iron & 1.08% V2O5 in concentrate)
  • Secondary Supply: VE Recovery potential from vanadium feedstocks such as oil sands fly ash waste
  • Exclusive Process technology: Vanadiumcorp-Electrochem Technology
  • Cost reduction potential for vanadium batteries: Vanadiumcorp Electrolyte
  • End users: Partnerships secured with leading US, Canadian and Global Vanadium Battery Companies for commercial deployment
Production testing of vanadium electrolyte and iron co-product will continue into Q2 2017. The VE produced will be tested in vanadium battery deployment projects VanadiumCorp is considering as well as collaborative R&D projects.

Request samples and preorders are available on the Company's website at www.vanadiumcorp.com

 

MOU with ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC.

VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA - February 9th, 2017 - VanadiumCorp Resource Inc. (TSX-V: "VRB") (the "Company") is pleased to announce it has signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding "MOU" with Quebec based industrial company, Electrochem Technologies & Materials Inc. "Electrochem" to collaborate on metallurgical and electrochemical technologies to produce vanadium electrolyte "VE" directly from VTM (Vanadiferous Titaniferous Magnetite) concentrate.

Adriaan Bakker, CEO of VanadiumCorp states, "Our partnership with Electrochem will focus on the most critical cost reducing component of vanadium batteries.  Integrating exclusive vanadium supply with new technology is the ultimate strategy to reduce cost/kWh and accelerate commercialization of vanadium based energy storage"

The MOU will allow the companies to collaborate on a number of key strategic initiatives including:

  • The development for the production of vanadium-rich pregnant leach solution "PLS" (VE precursor) and other specialty high purity vanadium materials.
  • The development and commercialization of efficient and environmentally friendly metallurgical and electrochemical processing technologies including the simultaneous removal of contaminant metals and the concurrent regeneration of chemicals.
  • Pursue reasonable efforts to enter into a definitive agreement within 12 months from the effective date of signing for the non-binding MOU.
The general process & production development outline for The Lac Dore Vanadium Project:

  • Commence prototype testing of VanadiumCorp Vanadiferous Titaniferous Magnetite "VTM"
  • Demonstrate recoveries and economics in pilot testing
  • Commercial vanadium electrolyte manufacture
 
Dr. François Cardarelli, President of Electrochem comments, "Novel metallurgical and electrochemical technologies can offer significant advantages in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, in cost savings and increasing efficiency. In the vanadium industry this bottleneck has inhibited Vanadium Redox Flow Battery economics for decades.  Developing a vertically integrated supply chain for VE manufacture in Canada would be a disruptive approach for energy storage."



ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. is a research and development company that invents, develops, patents, scales-up and commercialize proprietary metallurgical and electrochemical technologies that are innovative, and sustainable. Electrochem targets the mining, metallurgical and chemical industries, with a particular focus on the production of niobium, tantalum, tungsten, and the recycling of rare earths, specializing in remediation, reclamation and treatment of tailings, spent acids, leach liquor, end-of-life products, metallurgical effluents, and finally, industrial waste. Electrochem also manufactures industrial mixed metal oxides (MMO) anodes to meet the needs of its Canadian customers and support its own electrochemical technologies at its customers' sites worldwide and since 2016 started the small scale processing of tantalum and tungsten by-products and concentrates for the preparation of tantalum and tungsten chemicals. More information can be found at http://www.electrochem-technologies.com/ 

VanadiumCorp is focused on the development of its 100% owned Lac Dore Vanadium Project. Favorable metallurgy, low impurities such as silica and no superficial oxidation allow for the direct production of high-purity VE. 

Electrochem News Release

September 2nd, 2016 - PYROMETALLURGICAL & HYDROMETALLURGICAL
PROCESSING OF VANADIUM FEEDSTOCK'S

MONTREAL, QC – September 2nd, 2016 – We are pleased to announce that we have completed  last summer a testing campaign for the processing  of vanadium rich feedstocks from various origins such as vanadium-rich slag, vanadiferous titanomagnetite, and vanadium-rich residues. Electrochem Technologies & Materials Inc. was selected because our strong know-how in  molten salts and high temperature alkaline processing capabilities.

The campaign consisted first to perform the pyrometallurgical treatment of 25-kg batches of raw materials by soda ash roasting, alkaline roasting and salt roasting using our 12-kW kiln. The roasted or sintered material underwent hydrometallurgical operation units such as alkaline and acid leaching using counter current cascade leaching reactors and producing 75 liters per batch of pregnant leach solution (PLS).

Afterwards,  vanadium was precipitated from the PLS either as ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) or hydrated vanadium pentoxide (V2O5.250H2O). Finally at the end of the campaign, our patented electrowinning technology was used to recover either metallic iron or an iron-vanadium deposit from the sulfate based pregnant leach solutions while regenerating concentrated sulfuric acid to be reused back in the process.  

This campaign was to some extent in line with the expertise that was developped in-house over the years by our company for  the metallurgical and chemical processing of refractory metals of group VB(5) (V, Nb, Ta) and group VIB(6) (Cr, Mo, W).

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Primary VTM mines account for about 26% of global vanadium production. Coproduct steelmaking slag resulting from the processing of VTM supports about 59% of global vanadium.  Secondary sources supply about 15% of today’s vanadium production.

Ref: [1] Byron Capital Markets Industry Report – Vanadium: the Supercharger, November 12 2009; [2] US Geological Survey, Minerals Commodity Summaries, Vanadium January 2010

Potential Sources

In addition to the extensive reserves of VTM containing vanadium in Australia, China, Russia and South Africa there are several other deposits of magnetite and other materials containing vanadium from which it could be extracted in the future.

There are magnetite deposits in Brazil, Chile, Canada, Australia, Madagascar and Malaysia. Shale oil and tar sands containing vanadium are present in North America and Queensland, Australia.  Vanadium coproduct production from uranium mining in North America and Australia will contribute to vanadium supplies in the future.

Vanadium Production

Vanadium from the VTM ores of Russia and China and South Africa is extracted as a co-product in steelmaking. In China and Russia the iron is produced in a blast furnace but in South Africa the iron is produced by a process involving the pre-reduction of the magnetite with powdered coal in a rotary kiln followed by reduction in a submerged arc electric furnace. Vanadium bearing coproduct slag is generated during steel production from iron sands in New Zealand in a process similar to the South African process.

The iron from these operations contains about 1.5% vanadium which is removed as slag by low temperature treatment with oxygen. In China this is carried out by spray refining, while in South Africa it is done in a shaking ladle and in Russia a special oxygen steel converter is used.

The slag from South Africa contains up to 25% V2O5 whereas the slag from China and Russia contains between 14% and 22%. The V2O5 is extracted from the slags by a roast-leach process in which the slags are roasted in kilns or in multi-hearth furnaces with sodium carbonate, chloride or sulphate (or lime in Russia). This produces sodium vanadates which are leached into an aqueous phase with water. Ammonium vanadates are precipitated from this solution by addition of ammonia and sulphuric acid to control the pH.

The ammonia is removed and the vanadate converted to various oxides by heating under controlled conditions which are varied according to the oxide required. Fused flake V2O5 is produced by decomposing the vanadates in a furnace and melting the resulting V2O5 to liquid phase and then casting onto a chilling wheel.  Vanadium oxide powders are produced by the solid state decomposition of the vanadates in a controlled environment.  In some cases liquid-liquid ion exchange/solvent extraction processes are utilized to produce high purity vanadium oxide powders.

Vanadium oxides are used for the production of ferrovanadium and vanadium-aluminium alloys required for the addition of vanadium to steel and titanium respectively. Ammonium vanadates and high purity vanadium oxide powders are used for the production of downstream vanadium chemicals.

Vanadium from the Colorado carnotite ore is extracted as a co-product during uranium production. The ore is treated with sulphuric acid to dissolve the vanadium and uranium. The uranium and vanadium are separated from the liquid by solvent extraction followed by a liquid-liquid ion exchange process which separates the uranium leaving the vanadium in the acid solution. This is subsequently oxidised and removed from the organic salts with soda ash. Vanadium polyvanadate is precipitated by the addition ammonium sulphate.

Vanadium, from oils in which it is present, is obtained by various routes.  It is present in the coke produced in the Flexicoke process used in Venezuela for the upgrading of heavy crude oils. Vanadium from this coke leached into solution with sulphuric acid and ammonium vanadates are precipitated.

Vanadium bearing oil based fuels are burnt in the boilers of electric power generating plant and vanadium is left in the fly ash and boiler slags. Vanadium in these ashes and slags is recovered by the same process as for vanadium coming from Flexicoke.  Ashes and slag are also converted directly to ferrovanadium (40%V grade) via silicon reduction in an electric furnace.

Spent nickel-molybdenum and cobalt-molybdenum catalysts are treated pyrometallurgically to solubilise the metals present (V, Co, Ni, Mo), separate the metals and precipitate them as salts (including vanadates) before converting to oxides.

Vanadium is added to steel as a ferroalloy. Ferrovanadium is available in alloys containing 40%, 60% or 80% vanadium. The 60% and 80% grades are mostly produced by the aluminothermic reduction of vanadium oxides in the presence of steel scrap or by direct reduction in an electric furnace. The 40% grade is produced from slag and other vanadium products by the silicon reduction process.

Vanadium additions to titanium alloys are made with aluminium-vanadium master alloys which are also produced by aluminothermic reduction of high purity vanadium oxides.

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