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Glossary of Technical  Terms


Copperas is an iron salt produced by the VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Process Technology “VEPT” and the historical and conventional source is produced also as a natural by-product of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) manufacturing process and . It can be used to produce animal feeds, cement, pigments, and in biogas and water treatment applications.

Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, commonly known as copperas, is a green, water soluble, acidic salt, produced during the VEPT or the manufacture of TiO2. A cost efficient source of iron, we supply this secondary product to a variety of sectors, where it is put to good use in numerous chemical and industrial applications.

In the water treatment industry, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate can be used directly in water treatment plants to improve the coagulation and removal of elements such as phosphorus. In pigment production, copperas is a useful source of iron. Water-soluble and easy to handle, it is commonly used to produce red, yellow and black iron oxide pigments. Cement producers also use ferrous sulfate heptahydrate – harnessing its power to reduce chromium (VI) levels.

Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate can also be dried and oxidized to create other useful forms of iron.

When dried, copperas turns into ferrous sulfate thermal monohydrate. With a high concentration of iron (around 30%) this by-product can be used as a valuable supplement in animal feeds. In its oxidized form, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate is a liquid source of iron that can be used in water treatment, biogas treatment and mining processes

Cradle to gate

Cradle-to-gate is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer). The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. ie VEPT Learn more here….

Pregnant Liquor Solution

The portion of an original liquid that remains after other components have been dissolved by a solvent is also called raffinate. In the case of VEPT in referring generally to all metal value recovered in solution from virtually any feedstock Learn more here….

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