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By REBECCA FLOOD
PUBLISHED: 14:41, Wed, Apr 19, 2017 | UPDATED: 15:28, Wed, Apr 19, 2017
Headed by despotic leader King Jong-Un, North Korea has been flouting existing United Nations (UN) sanctions by carrying on work on its nuclear and ballistic missile programmes.
In response the UN has slapped further restrictions on Pyongyang which affect individuals and entities.
The UN has blacklisted 39 North Korean individuals and 42 entities, who are now subject to a travel ban and asset freeze.
The US, Japan and South Korea have also issued sanctions but they are not binding, unlike the UN’s which member states are obliged to enforce.
The US has also imposed its own sanctions on the national airline, Air Koryo
Tensions have escalated between the reclusive regime and the rest of the world, particularly the US, after Donald Trump ramped up the rhetoric between the two nations.
He has been highly critical of Pyongyang, but seemingly backed up his threats by claiming an “armada” was heading to the Korean peninsula earlier this week.
This enraged North Korea, who flaunted what appeared to be new missiles at a parade and staged a failed missile test.
Despite Mr Trump’s ominous threat, it emerged the armada was in fact headed to Australia to complete some training.
Despite the inflated claims, Pyongyang responded with impunity, with Vice-Foreign Minister Han Song-ryol declaring the regime would not be cowed by the US’ intimidation.
He said: “We’ll be conducting more missile tests on a weekly, monthly and yearly basis.”
And he said that should the US continue to apply pressure there would be an “all-out war”.
But the regime’s efforts could be hampered after the UN ramped up sanctions.
The restrictions which are currently in force are:
North Korea is under a total arms embargo, meaning the sale of all arms and related material is banned.
Financial restrictions relating to the procurement of arms – and helicopters – is also included.
North Korea has been flouting existing United Nations (UN) sanctions
Coal and minerals
North Korea is banned or partially banned from selling coal, iron, iron ore, gold, titanium ore, vanadium ore, copper, nickel, silver, zinc and rare earth minerals.
Sales of copper, nickel, silver and zinc are completely banned.
Exports of coal up to $400.87 million or 7,500,000 metric tonnes a year – whichever is less – is allowed providing there is proof it is for “livelihood purposes” and none is purchased from a sanctioned entity.
China, North Korea’s ally, has also declared it will suspend all imports of coal from the country for the remainder of 2017.
One exception exists relating to coal from the North Korean city of Rason, where Russia has a port.
The sale of aviation fuel, jet fuel and rocket fuel are prohibited, not including for its civilian airline, Air Koryo.
Wed, April 19, 2017
North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un (R) attending a military parade in Pyongyang marking the 105th anniversary of the birth of late North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung
A hard-hit sector, financial transactions which contribute to North Korea’s banned missile and nuclear programmes, or help Pyongyang evade sanctions, are banned.
Member states are prohibited from opening branches, subsidiaries or offices of North Korean banks. Joint ventures, ownership, or correspondent banking relationships with North Korean banks is banned.
They must also expel and repatriate any North Korean workers in banks or other institutions.
UN members are also required to limit the number of bank accounts for North Korean diplomatic missions.
Member states must de-register any vessel which is owned, operated or crewed by North Korea.
This stops North Korean ships from flying under a different flag, and no UN members can provide insurance services for ships.
The country is also barred from selling its ships, and no North Korean crews can be attached to other vessels.
The US, Japan and South Korea have also issued sanctions
UN countries must either prohibit, inspect or deny landing of any North Korean aircraft which is suspected to be carrying banned items, or taking part in any prohibited activities.
Inspections are also required for cargo going to or coming from North Korea by any means including sea, air, road and rail.
This includes carry-on baggage of people travelling to or from North Korea by air.
Defined as jewellery and precious stones, yachts, luxury cars, racing cars, luxury watches, snowmobiles, jet skis, recreational sports equipment, tableware worth more than $100 and rugs or tapestries worth more than $500, the sale and supply of these goods is illegal to North Korea.
Sanctions require member states to reduce the number of staff at North Korean diplomatic missions. North Korean diplomats or consular officials are only allowed one bank account each.
North Korea is under a total arms embargo
The training of or by North Koreans in military, police and paramilitary techniques is banned.
With the exception of medical exchanges, U.N. member states are not allowed to provide training or cooperation in the fields of nuclear science, aerospace, advanced manufacturing and advanced aeronautical, chemical, mechanical, electrical or industrial engineering.
The sale of North Korean statues is banned.
The US has also imposed its own sanctions on the national airline, Air Koryo, banning US citizens from doing business with the company.
It is unclear whether this applies to tourists.
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