• Comprehensive utilization of converterslagwas taken into consideration.
• V, Fe and Ti were gradient recovered by proposed process.
• Cr was recovered in the form of high-chromium-vanadium iron.
• The final tailings are harmless and can be used as construction materials.
A multistage utilization process was developed to fully recover valuable metals from vanadium-bearing converter slag and reduce the content of hazardous elements, such as vanadium and chromium, in the tailings. A mechanical activation–calcification roasting–acid leaching process was firstly employed to recover vanadium. This process generated two products, viz. a V-bearing solution accounting for ∼95% V recovery and vanadium tailings with Fe and Ti contents of 31.85% and 8.94%, respectively. Then, based on theoretical calculations and physical measurements, a coal–based direct reduction–magnetic separation process and a hydrochloric acid leaching process were employed for the stepwise recovery of iron and titanium, respectively, from the vanadium tailings. Iron was recovered in the form of high chromium–vanadium iron with 81.53% Fe, 1.31% Cr, and 2.04% V, and titanium was recovered as titanium dioxide pigment with 85–90% yield. Such a comprehensive and clean utilization of vanadium-bearing converter slag has great potential for practical application.
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