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The general design of a VRB is illustrated in Figure 1. The cell is composed of two electrodes/current collectors and an ion-selective membrane as the separator. The membrane is placed in between the electrodes to form two halfcells. To maintain charge neutrality during the redox reaction, H? ions have to be transferred between the locations of the mixed reactions via the separator membrane. The (ideal) membrane should have a high permeability for protons. Contrary to non-flowing cells, the electrolyte is stored in two external tanks that are coupled to separate fluid circuits. Within these circuits, the electrolyte is pumped through the half-cells where the actual charge/discharge mechanisms occur. Thus a potential between the electrodes of the cell either has to be applied externally (charging) or can be tapped (discharging) .
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