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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Vanadium?

What is the history of Vanadium?

Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by the Spanish scientist Andres Manuel del Rio.

Del Rio discovered the new element in brown lead ore (now known to be the mineral vanadinite, Pb5[VO4]3Cl) in New Spain (Mexico).

Del Rio had moved to Mexico as a professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy at the Royal School of Mines, Mexico City.

He named his new element panchromo or panchromium meaning ‘all of the colors’ because of the wide range of colors he had found when investigating the element’s salts.

He then renamed the element eritrono or erythronium, from the Greek word eruthros, meaning red. The new name was inspired by the red color which was seen when Group 1 or Group 2 oxide salts of the new element – for example sodium vanadium oxide – were heated or acidified

In 1805 the French chemist Hippolyte-Victor Collet-Descotils examined the lead ore and announced that erythronium was actually impure chromium – an analysis which, unfortunately, del Rio accepted.

Nothing more was heard of the element until 1830, when Nils Gabriel Sefström in Stockholm, Sweden, found a new metal in a Swedish iron ore.

He called this new element vanadium after ‘Vanadis’ the Scandinavian goddess of beauty because of the beautiful multicolored compounds formed by the metal. (4)

In the same year, German chemist Friedrich Wöhler reinvestigated the Mexican lead ore and found that vanadium was identical to del Rio’s erythronium. (5)

The metal was first isolated by Sir Henry E. Roscoe in 1867, in Manchester, England, by reducing vanadium chloride with hydrogen.

The vanadium mineral roscoelite was named in honor of Rocoe’s work.

Where is Vanadium found?

Vanadium is not found as a free form element in nature. Some minerals containing vanadium include vanadinite, carnotite, and magnetite. The majority of vanadium production comes from magnetite. Around 98% of the vanadium ore that is mined is mined in South Africa, Russia, and China.

What are all the uses of Vanadium?

Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft. Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium-gallium tape is used in superconducting magnets. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. The vanadium redox battery for energy storage may be an important application in the future.

Where are your mining projects located?

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What are Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries?

How does the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Work?

What is VEPT and what are the benefits?

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Can you tell me more about Vanadiumcorp Resource Inc.?

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How do I contact Vanadiumcorp Resources Inc with questions?

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Glossary of Technical  Terms

Vertical Integration

The combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies. For VanadiumCorp, it is the development of an integrated supply chain with its own vanadium mining projects in Quebec, jointly owned proprietary vanadium extraction technique and VRFB technology.

Vanadium Pentoxide "V2O5"

Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5. Commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, it is a brown/yellow solid, although when freshly precipitated from aqueous solution, its colour is deep orange. Because of its high oxidation state, it is both an amphoteric oxide and an oxidizing agent. From the industrial perspective, it is the most important compound of vanadium, being the principal precursor to alloys of vanadium and is a widely used industrial catalyst.[6]

The mineral form of this compound, shcherbinaite, is extremely rare, almost always found among fumaroles. A mineral trihydrate, V2O5·3H2O, is also known under the name of navajoite.

Chemical properties

Reduction to lower oxides

Upon heating a mixture of the pentoxide and V2O3, comproportionation occurs to give vanadium(IV) oxide, as a deep-blue solid:

V2O5 + V2O3 → 4 VO2

The reduction can also be effected by oxalic acid, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. Further reduction using hydrogen or excess CO can lead to complex mixtures of oxides such as V4O7 and V5O9 before black V2O3 is reached.

Acid-base reactions

V2O5 is an amphoteric oxide. Unlike most metal oxides, it dissolves slightly in water to give a pale yellow, acidic solution. Thus V2O5 reacts with strong non-reducing acids to form solutions containing the pale yellow salts containing dioxovanadium(V) centers:

V2O5 + 2 HNO3 → 2 VO2(NO3) + H2O

It also reacts with strong alkali to form polyoxovanadates, which have a complex structure that depends on pH. If excess aqueous sodium hydroxide is used, the product is a colourless salt, sodium orthovanadate, Na3VO4. If acid is slowly added to a solution of Na3VO4, the colour gradually deepens through orange to red before brown hydrated V2O5 precipitates around pH 2. These solutions contain mainly the ions HVO42− and V2O74− between pH 9 and pH 13, but below pH 9 more exotic species such as V4O124− and HV10O285− (decavanadate) predominate.

Upon treatment with thionyl chloride, it converts to the volatile liquid vanadium oxychloride, VOCl3:

V2O5 + 3 SOCl2 → 2 VOCl3 + 3 SO2

Other redox reactions[edit]

Hydrochloric acid and hydrobromic acid are oxidised to the corresponding halogen, e.g.,

V2O5 + 6HCl + 7H2O → 2[VO(H2O)5]2+ + 4Cl + Cl2

Vanadates or vanadyl(V) compounds in acid solution are reduced by zinc amalgam through the colourful pathway:

VO2+yellow  VO2+blue  V3+green  V2+purple

The ions are all hydrated to varying degrees.


The orange, partly hydrated form of V2O5
Precipitate of “red cake”, which is hydrous V2O5

Vanadium(V) oxide is produced when vanadium metal is heated with excess oxygen, but this product is contaminated with other, lower oxides. A more satisfactory laboratory preparation involves the decomposition of ammonium metavanadate at 500-550 °C:

2 NH4VO3 → V2O5 + 2 NH3 + H2O

Technical grade V2O5 is produced as a black powder used for the production of vanadium metal and ferrovanadium. A vanadium ore or vanadium-rich residue is treated with sodium carbonate and an ammonium salt to produce sodium metavanadate, NaVO3. This material is then acidified to pH 2–3 using H2SO4 to yield a precipitate of “red cake” (see above). The red cake is then melted at 690 °C to produce the crude V2O5.

Ferrovanadium production


In terms of quantity, the dominant use for vanadium(V) oxide is in the production of ferrovanadium (see above). The oxide is heated with scrap iron and ferrosilicon, with lime added to form a calcium silicate slag. Aluminium may also be used, producing the iron-vanadium alloy along with alumina as a by-product.

Sulfuric acid production

Another important use of vanadium(V) oxide is in the manufacture of sulfuric acid, an important industrial chemical with an annual worldwide production of 165 million metric tons in 2001, with an approximate value of US$8 billion. Vanadium(V) oxide serves the crucial purpose of catalysing the mildly exothermic oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide by air in the contact process:

2 SO2 + O2 ⇌ 2 SO3

The discovery of this simple reaction, for which V2O5 is the most effective catalyst, allowed sulfuric acid to become the cheap commodity chemical it is today. The reaction is performed between 400 and 620 °C; below 400 °C the V2O5 is inactive as a catalyst, and above 620 °C it begins to break down. Since it is known that V2O5 can be reduced to VO2 by SO2, one likely catalytic cycle is as follows:

SO2 + V2O5 → SO3 + 2VO2

followed by

2VO2 +½O2 → V2O5

It is also used as catalyst in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx emissions in some power plants. Due to its effectiveness in converting sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide, and thereby sulfuric acid, special care must be taken with the operating temperatures and placement of a power plant’s SCR unit when firing sulfur-containing fuels.

Other oxidations

Maleic anhydride is produced by the V2O5-catalysed oxidation of butane with air:

C4H10 + 4 O2 → C2H2(CO)2O + 8 H2O

Maleic anhydride is used for the production of polyester resins and alkyd resins

Phthalic anhydride is produced similarly by V2O5-catalysed oxidation of ortho-xylene or naphthalene at 350–400 °C. The equation is for the xylene oxidation:

C6H4(CH3)2 + 3 O2 → C6H4(CO)2O + 3 H2O

Phthalic anhydride is a precursor to plasticisers, used for conferring pliability to polymers.

A variety of other industrial compounds are produced similarly, including adipic acid, acrylic acid, oxalic acid, and anthraquinone.

Other applications

Due to its high coefficient of thermal resistance, vanadium(V) oxide finds use as a detector material in bolometers and microbolometer arrays for thermal imaging. It also finds application as an ethanol sensor in ppm levels (up to 0.1 ppm).

Vanadium redox batteries are a type of flow battery used for energy storage, including large power facilities such as wind farms.

Biological activity


Vanadium(V) oxide exhibits very modest acute toxicity to humans, with an LD50 of about 470 mg/kg. The greater hazard is with inhalation of the dust, where the LD50 ranges from 4–11 mg/kg for a 14-day exposure. Vanadate (VO3−

4), formed by hydrolysis of V2O5 at high pH, appears to inhibit enzymes that process phosphate (PO43−). However the mode of action remains elusive.


VRFB = Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
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Green Mining

According to Kirkey, “Green mining is defined as technologies, best practices and mine processes that are implemented as a means to reduce the environmental impacts associated with the extraction and processing of metals and minerals.

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VEPT = VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Process Technology 
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VTM = vanadiferous titanomagnetite 

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Vanadiferous titanomagnetite

Vanadiferous titanomagnetite, VTM, Magnetite, AKA the primary source of vanadium globally. 

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PEA = Preliminary Economic Assessment



Copperas is an iron salt produced by the VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Process Technology “VEPT” and the historical and conventional source is produced also as a natural by-product of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) manufacturing process and . It can be used to produce animal feeds, cement, pigments, and in biogas and water treatment applications.

Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, commonly known as copperas, is a green, water soluble, acidic salt, produced during the VEPT or the manufacture of TiO2. A cost efficient source of iron, we supply this secondary product to a variety of sectors, where it is put to good use in numerous chemical and industrial applications.

In the water treatment industry, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate can be used directly in water treatment plants to improve the coagulation and removal of elements such as phosphorus. In pigment production, copperas is a useful source of iron. Water-soluble and easy to handle, it is commonly used to produce red, yellow and black iron oxide pigments. Cement producers also use ferrous sulfate heptahydrate – harnessing its power to reduce chromium (VI) levels.

Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate can also be dried and oxidized to create other useful forms of iron.

When dried, copperas turns into ferrous sulfate thermal monohydrate. With a high concentration of iron (around 30%) this by-product can be used as a valuable supplement in animal feeds. In its oxidized form, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate is a liquid source of iron that can be used in water treatment, biogas treatment and mining processes

Vanadium Electrolyte

Vanadium electrolyte is the vital component of VRFBs, an increasingly popular technology. VRFBs are an alternative energy storage technology capable of delivering load levelling and storage capacity for remote generation and renewable generation applications. … Vanadium electrolyte is the electrochemical storage medium.

Cradle to gate

Cradle-to-gate is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer). The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. ie VEPT Learn more here….

Pregnant Liquor Solution

The portion of an original liquid that remains after other components have been dissolved by a solvent is also called raffinate. In the case of VEPT in referring generally to all metal value recovered in solution from virtually any feedstock Learn more here….

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